Purse seining involves the use of a large net to encircle shoaling fish. The net is drawn closed around the shoal like a bag. In South Africa purse seine vessels target small pelagic shoaling fish such as sardines and anchovies, and the gear is selective, bycatch of other species is normally low, except when more than one species shoal together. The primary potential impact of catching these species is termed the "ecosystem effect". Small pelagic fishes are ecologically important as...learn more
Pots, traps and hoops are used to catch slower moving or bottom dwelling sea creatures such as rock lobsters, crabs and octopus. Traps are baited and set on the seabed for a period of time before being retrieved. The method is generally very specific, though minor concerns are ghost fishing (when a trap is lost and continues to attract and catch fish and other animals without ever being retrieved), and occasional entanglement of whales in trap lines, which can be...learn more
Jigging is a specialised method used to target squid or tjokka, which is also known as calamari. Squid are attracted to boats at night by powerful lights and caught with barbed lures that are halued vertically through the water. This is a highly selective fishing method and there is very little bycatch in this fishery.learn more
Mid-water trawling is trawling with a net at a depth that is higher in the water column than the bottom of the ocean. It is also known as pelagic trawling. In midwater trawling, a cone-shaped net can be towed behind a single boat and spread by trawl doors, or it can be towed behind two boats (pair trawling) which act as the spreading device. Midwater trawling catches pelagic fish such as anchovies, shrimp, tuna and mackerel. Although there are some...learn more
Pelagic longlining is also known as surface longlining and is one of the major industrial fishing methods used around the world. As the name suggests, it uses a long line, called the main line, with baited hooks attached at intervals by means of branch lines called "snoods" and involves using a main line with hundreds of baited hooks. Longlines can be up to 100km long with as many as 20 000 baited hooks, these lines can set by means of...learn more
The pole-and-line fishery is where fish are caught using long poles which have fishing line attached to them with a hook and a lure on the end. Water is sprayed over the edge of the boat to attract the fish and, once a fish is caught on the line, it is hauled up onto the boat. The main fish caught in this fishery are the various species of tuna. This method is highly selective and, although other species are often...learn more
Beach seine is a traditional fishing method where schools of fish are encircled from the shore with a long net dragged by a rowing boat, and hauled up onto the beach. This method is used to catch yellowtail and mullet in the Western Cape and sardines in KZN during the annual sardine run. The method has a much more localised impact compared to industrialised fishing methods; but nets of any kind by nature are non-selective and fishing tends to occur...learn more
Demersal trawling, also known as bottom trawling or dragging, is one of the most widely used industrial fishing methods around the world. It involves towing a large net across the seabed targetting the species that live on the sea bottom. Hake, sole, and prawns are all species in South Africa that are targeted using bottom trawl gear. The main issue with bottom trawling is that it is non-selective, and depending on the target species may have a substantial bycatch. Retained...learn more
The hand collection method is usually used for sedentary or slow moving species such as abalone, oysters and mussels. This is where the animals are hand picked off rocks. This method has very little habitat damage implications and no bycatch, therefore harvesting a species with this method at a sustainable rate has very little to no implication on the environment.learn more
Demersal Longlining is also known as bottom longlining and is one of the major industrial fishing methods used around the world. As the name suggests, it uses a long line, called the main line, with baited hooks attached at intervals by means of branch lines called "snoods" and involves using a main line with hundreds of baited hooks. Longlines can be up to 100km long with as many as 20 000 baited hooks. Demersal longlines are set along the seabed...learn more
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